Millions of men each year are faced with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) but the prostate biopsy fails to detect the disease. For the urologists, how to select the appropriate candidate for repeat biopsy is a significant clinical dilemma.
Traditional risk-stratification tools in this setting such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) related markers and histopathology findings have met with limited correlation with cancer diagnosis or with significant disease. Thus, an individualized approach using predictive models such as an online risk calculator (RC) or updated biomarkers is more suitable in counseling men about their risk of harboring clinically significant prostate cancer.
This review will focus on the available risk-stratification tools in the population of men with prior negative biopsies and persistent suspicion of PCa. The underlying methodology and platforms of the available tools are reviewed to better understand the development and validation of these models. The index patient is then assessed with different RCs to determine the range of heterogeneity among various RCs. This should allow the urologists to better incorporate these various risk-stratification tools into their clinical practice and improve patient counseling.
Asian J Androl. 2015 Jun 23. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.156859. [Epub ahead of print]
Sorokin I, Mian BM1.
Department of Urology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA.