Screening for Prostate Cancer-Beyond Total PSA, Utilization of Novel Biomarkers.

Urology has been beset by several major trends that have shifted the entire paradigm for prostate cancer screening.

These stem from a backlash against overdiagnosis and overtreatment due to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening efforts and have led national societies to modify their guidelines.

More importantly, the public outcry has shifted the focus of early detection from an effort to diagnose any and all prostate cancers to an effort to diagnose clinically significant prostate cancers at an early stage.

This review provides an update on contemporary biomarkers for prostate cancer that may be used to supplement PSA-based screening approaches.