False positive and false negative diagnoses of prostate cancer at multi-parametric prostate MRI in active surveillance - Abstract

MP-MRI is a critical component in active surveillance (AS) of prostate cancer (PCa) because of a high negative predictive value for clinically significant tumours.

This review illustrates pitfalls of MP-MRI and how to recognise and avoid them. The anterior fibromuscular stroma and central zone are low signal on T2W-MRI/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), resembling PCa. Location, progressive enhancement and low signal on b ≥1000 mm²/s echo-planar images (EPI) are differentiating features. BPH can mimic PCa. Glandular BPH shows increased T2W/ADC signal, cystic change and progressive enhancement; however, stromal BPH resembles transition zone (TZ) PCa. A rounded morphology, low T2 signal capsule and posterior/superior location favour stromal BPH. Acute/chronic prostatitis mimics PCa at MP-MRI, with differentiation mainly on clinical grounds. Visual analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI must include EPI and appropriate windowing of ADC. Quantitative ADC analysis is limited by lack of standardization; the ADC ratio and ADC histogram analysis are alternatives to mean values. DCE lacks standardisation and has limited utility in the TZ, where T2W/DWI are favoured. Targeted TRUS-guided biopsies of MR-detected lesions are challenging. Lesions detected on MP-MRI may not be perfectly targeted with TRUS and this must be considered when faced with a suspicious lesion on MP-MRI and a negative targeted TRUS biopsy histopathological result.

Written by:
Quon JS, Moosavi B, Khanna M, Flood TA, Lim CS, Schieda N.   Are you the author?
Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, 1053 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1Y 4E9.

Reference: Insights Imaging. 2015 May 23. Epub ahead of print.
doi: 10.1007/s13244-015-0411-3

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 26002487

UroToday.com Prostate Cancer Section