OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether transurethral resection of the prostate can be used as both (i) treatment for symptomatic prostatic enlargement in patients with prostate cancer and (ii) a risk-adaptive strategy for reducing prostate-specific antigen levels and broadening the indications of active surveillance.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of 3680 patients who underwent prostate biopsies at a single institution (March 2006 to January 2012). Of 529 men who had Gleason score 6 prostate cancer and were ineligible for active surveillance, 86 (16.3%) underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for symptomatic prostatic enlargement. We assessed how changes in prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density influenced the eligibility for active surveillance and the outcome of subsequent therapy. The following active surveillance criteria were used: prostate-specific antigen ≤ 10 ng/ml, prostate-specific antigen density ≤ 0.15, positive cores ≤ 3 and single core involvement ≤ 50%.
RESULTS: The median age, pre-operative prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume were 71 years, 6.95 ng/ml, and 45.8 g, respectively. In 82.6% (71/86) of analyzed cases, ineligibility for active surveillance had resulted from elevated prostate-specific antigen level or prostate-specific antigen density. With a median resection of 16.5 g, transurethral resection of the prostate reduced the percentage of prostate-specific antigen and the percentage of prostate-specific antigen density by 34.5 and 50.0%, respectively, making 81.7% (58/71) of the patients eligible for active surveillance. Prostate-specific antigen level remained stabilized in all (21/21) patients maintained on active surveillance without disease progression during the median follow-up of 50.6 months. Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, 96.7% (29/30) exhibited localized disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Risk-adaptive transurethral resection of the prostate may prevent overtreatment and allay prostate-specific antigen-associated anxiety in patients with biopsy-proven low-grade prostate cancer and elevated prostate-specific antigen. Additional benefits include voiding symptom improvement and the avoidance of curative therapy's immediate side effects.
Koo KC, Park SU, Rha KH, Hong SJ, Yang SC, Hong CH, Chung BH. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Reference: Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015 May 15. pii: hyv073.