AIMS AND BACKGROUND: This study evaluates 3 different imaging modalities-ultrasound (US), stereoscopic X-ray imaging of implanted markers (Visicoils) (X-ray), and kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-to assess interfraction and intrafraction localization error during conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer.
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METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 186 consecutive prostate cancer patients treated with an image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) hypofractionated protocol using 3 techniques: 32 with X-ray, 30 with CBCT, and 124 with US. Treatment dose of 70.2 Gy was delivered in 26 fractions with a conformal dynamic arcs technique. Interfraction prostate localization errors were determined for the 3 techniques. Moreover, interfraction and intrafraction prostate motion in terms of translations and rotations, as well as residual errors, were determined with X-ray.
RESULTS: The systematic and random components of the prostate localization errors were as follows: (1) with X-ray 3.0 ± 3.4, 2.3 ± 2.7, 1.8 ± 2.3 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) directions and 1.8° ± 1.2°, 2.3° ± 1.5°, 2.7° ± 3.1°, for the yaw, roll, and pitch rotations; (2) with CBCT 3.5 ± 4.2, 3.3 ± 3.3, 2.5 ± 3.1 mm in AP, SI, and LR directions; (3) with US 3.7 ± 4.7, 3.4 ± 4.3, 2.3 ± 3.5 mm in AP, SI, and LR directions. Residual errors with X-ray were less than 1 mm in all directions. Intrafraction prostate motion of less than 0.5 mm in LR and of the order of 1 mm in AP and SI directions was found. This led to a significant reduction of the margins, potentially important for dose escalation studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Daily on-line IGRT with stereoscopic X-ray imaging allowed a consistent PTV margin reduction considering residual interfraction prostate localization error and intrafraction motion. X-ray offers the best compromise among accuracy, reliability, dose to the patient, and time investment for daily IGRT treatment of prostate.
Garibaldi C, Jereczek-Fossa BA, Zerini D, Cambria R, Ferrari A, Serafini F, Cattani F, Tagaste B, Fodor C, Luraschi R, Orecchia R. Are you the author?
Medical Physics Unit, European Institute of Oncology, Milan - Italy.
Reference: Tumori. 2015 Apr 22;0(0):0.