OBJECTIVE: To test the relationship of smoking and aggressive prostate cancer in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.
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METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 2290 men who underwent radical prostatectomy from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database from 2000 to 2013 was carried out. There were 1592 (70%) non-smokers and 698 (30%) smokers at radical prostatectomy. Logistic regression was used to examine whether smoking predicted Gleason score (≥4 + 3), margin status, extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle invasion. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between smoking and tumor volume.
RESULTS: Smokers were younger, more likely to be black, had lower body mass index, higher pathological Gleason score, more positive margins and extracapsular extension (all P < 0.05) versus non-smokers. On crude analysis, smoking was associated with positive margins (odds ratio 1.32; P = 0.003) and extracapsular extension (odds ratio 1.26; P = 0.036). After adjusting for multiple clinical factors, smoking remained associated with a 19-35% increased risk of every adverse feature studied, though only the association with extracapsular extension reached significance. On multivariable analysis, a trend for smokers to have larger tumor volumes (geometric mean 5.8 vs 5.3 g; P = 0.062) was found.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, there seems to be a trend for smokers to have worse pathological features compared with non-/former smokers. If confirmed in future studies, smoking should be considered a modifiable risk factor for aggressive prostate cancer.
Zapata DF, Howard LE, Aronson WJ, Kane CJ, Terris MK, Amling CL, Cooperberg MR, Freedland SJ. Are you the author?
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Reference: Int J Urol. 2015 Apr 14. Epub ahead of print.