Prostate cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death in Europe and the United States and is an emerging problem in Asia despite significant improvements in available treatments over the last few decades.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the core treatment of advance-staged disease since the discovery of prostate cancer's androgen dependence in 1941 by Huggins et al.  Options for initial medical treatment include gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues such as leuprolide (LHRH agonist) and degarelix (LHRH antagonist) and androgen receptor (AR) binding agents such as bicalutamide. Although most patients will initially respond to either surgical or medical castration, there is almost always progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) necessitating treatment with more novel agents.  However, even drugs such as abiraterone and enzalutamide, two next-generation agents used commonly in metastatic CRPC, have failed to demonstrate persistent efficacy in most patients.
Zhang Q, Gray PJ. Are you the author?
Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Reference: Asian J Androl. 2015 Mar 27. Epub ahead of print.