Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting men with > 1,100,000 new cases and 300,000 deaths worldwide each year.
The disease is more common among older men, with a median age at diagnosis around age above 60 years. Prostate cancer is a major medical problem that needs immediate attention as the disease is indolent, shows prolonged latency in association with high morbidity and mortality. Administration of diagnostic tests including PSA test and biopsies and the advances in other diagnostic procedures have led to early detection of the disease with therapeutic steps being taken early on, there has been a steady decline in the disease-specific mortality. Global incidence and mortality rates show that the disease is more prevalent among black people, even though the differences cannot be attributed entirely to race, as the influence of socioeconomic situation and the resultant limited access to medical technologies and treatment could not be ruled out completely. Several genes have been identified that when mutated confer high risk for the disease. Besides the genetic factors, family history and nutritional factors such as lack of enough vitamin D, high intake of calcium, obesity and high fat diets have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. Therapeutic measures for prostate cancer involve mostly radical prostatectomy followed by radiotherapy in combination with hormonal treatment as needed.
Tao ZQ, Shi AM, Wang KX, Zhang WD. Are you the author?
Department of Science and Education, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.
Reference: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Mar;19(5):805-12.