BACKGROUND: Given that some patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have shown extended responses to the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide, long-term safety of this drug is of interest.
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety and antitumor activity of enzalutamide in CRPC patients.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This phase 1-2 study evaluated enzalutamide in 140 CRPC patients with and without prior chemotherapy. Initial findings were published in 2010. We report updated results from an additional 17-mo follow-up for antitumor activity and >4 yr for safety.
INTERVENTION: Patients received 30-600mg/d oral enzalutamide. During long-term dosing, all patients were switched first to the maximum tolerated dose of 240mg/d and then to the phase 3 dose of 160mg/d.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Safety was assessed regularly. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the distributions of time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression and time to radiographic progression.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The safety profile of enzalutamide was consistent over time, with little change in the rates of commonly reported adverse events (AEs) or the incidence of grade 3/4 AEs. Fatigue of any grade was the most common dose-dependent AE, experienced by 70% of patients, with 14% of patients reporting grade 3/4 fatigue. The median time to PSA progression was not reached for chemotherapy-naive patients and was 45 wk for postchemotherapy patients; the corresponding median time to radiographic progression was 56 wk and 25 wk.
CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide showed durable antitumor activity in chemotherapy-naive and postchemotherapy patients, and was well tolerated, even in patients treated for 4 yr.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Enzalutamide was active against prostate cancer and was well tolerated, even for up to 4 yr of treatment, supporting its potential for long-term use in men with prostate cancer. Fatigue was the most common side effect, occurring at varying degrees of severity in most patients.
Higano CS, Beer TM, Taplin ME, Efstathiou E, Hirmand M, Forer D, Scher HI. Are you the author?
University of Washington School of Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Oregon Health & Science University Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; Medivation Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA; Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
Reference: Eur Urol. 2015 Feb 16. pii: S0302-2838(15)00069-X.