Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging enhances detection of significant tumor in patients on active surveillance for prostate cancer - Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate (mpMRI) combined with MRI fusion technology during transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy can enhance the detection of significant disease in patients with apparent low-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 603 patients on AS for localized prostate cancer between January 2006 and September 2013. mpMRI before repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy was obtained in 111 patients, of whom 69 underwent subsequent fusion biopsy (39 true and 30 cognitive) in addition to standard template biopsy. The results of fusion biopsy were compared with the standard biopsy. The primary endpoint was termination of AS.

RESULTS: mpMRI detected 118 suspicious lesions in 70 patients (63%). Of these, 42 patients (60%) had lesions with Prostate imaging, reporting, and data system (PIRADS) score 3, and 28 patients (40%) had PIRADS score 4 or 5 lesions. AS was terminated in 27 (24.3%) of the 111 patients who underwent mpMRI. Seventeen patients stopped AS based on mpMRI findings including 16 for pathologic progression in target biopsies and 1 for lesion size increase, whereas the other 10 stopped AS because of pathologic progression in the standard cores (n = 6) or other reasons (n = 4). Use of mpMRI increased the rate of AS termination (27 vs. 10; P = .002). On multivariate analysis, PIRADS score 4-5 (vs. 3) was the only significant predictor of AS termination (P = .015).

CONCLUSION: These preliminary retrospective findings suggest that mpMRI with subsequent fusion biopsy enhances the identification of AS patients requiring definitive treatment.

Written by:
Abdi H, Pourmalek F, Zargar H, Walshe T, Harris AC, Chang SD, Eddy C, So AI, Gleave ME, Machan L, Goldenberg SL, Black PC.   Are you the author?
Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.  

Reference: Urology. 2015 Feb;85(2):423-8.
doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.09.060

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 25623709 Prostate Cancer Section