Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used as a serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa) screening or progression monitoring, which dramatically increased rate of early detection while significantly reduced PCa-specific mortality.
However, a number of limitations of PSA have been noticed. Low specificity of PSA may lead to overtreatment in men who presenting with a total PSA (tPSA) level of < 10 ng/mL. As a type of free PSA (fPSA), [-2]proPSA is differentially expressed in peripheral zone of prostate gland and found to be elevated in serum of men with PCa. Two p2PSA-based derivatives, prostate health index (PHI) and %p2PSA, which were defined as [(p2PSA/fPSA) × √ tPSA] and [(p2PSA/fPSA) × 100] respectively, have been suggested to be increased in PCa and can better distinguish PCa from benign prostatic diseases than tPSA or fPSA. We performed a systematic review of the available scientific evidences to evaluate the potentials of %p2PSA and PHI in clinical application. Mounting evidences suggested that both %p2PSA and PHI possess higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) and better specificity at a high sensitivity for PCa detection when compare with tPSA and %fPSA. It indicated that measurements of %p2PSA and PHI significantly improved the accuracy of PCa detection and diminished unnecessary biopsies. Furthermore, elevations of %p2PSA and PHI are related to more aggressive diseases. %p2PSA and PHI might be helpful in reducing overtreatment on indolent cases or assessing the progression of PCa in men who undergo active surveillance. Further studies are needed before being applied in routine clinical practice.
Huang YQ, Sun T, Zhong WD, Wu CL. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Urology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180, China; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Reference: Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2014 Dec 25;2(4):343-50.