OBJECTIVE: To obtain a histologic confirmation of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, which still remains a challenge.
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Historically, biopsy protocols have been designed but have provided rather unsatisfactory results. We report the first case of histologic confirmation of a biochemical recurrence in the prostatectomy bed by performing 3-dimensional transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy with fusion to magnetic resonance images.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 66-year-old man who underwent laparoscopic prostatectomy for a localized prostate cancer of Gleason sum 3+3=6 and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 8.9 ng/L was followed up yearly. Postoperative serum PSA value was < 0.04 ng/L. Nine years later, the patient developed a biochemical recurrence with an elevation of serum PSA level to 1.27 ng/mL. A 3-T endorectal positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a 5 × 3 mm nodule in the prostatectomy bed in contact with the vesicourethral anastomosis without hypermetabolism. Two biopsies of this nodule were performed by using a 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasonography probe connected to the Koelis navigation system (Urostation; Koelis, Grenoble, France) with fusion to MRI images.
RESULTS: Histologic findings confirmed the presence of a recurrence of the prostate cancer of Gleason sum 4+3=7 in both biopsies, and the patient was addressed to the radio-oncologist for salvage therapy.
CONCLUSION: The use of a transrectal approach with 3-dimensional guidance and MRI fusion allows correct sampling of prostate cancer recurrence nodules in the prostate bed. This procedure is easily performed in the outpatient clinic but still has to be validated in a larger series.
Klein J, Benamran DA, Vallee JP, Iselin CE. Are you the author?
Division of Urologic Surgery, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
Reference: Urology. 2014 Nov;84(5):e17-8.