Ever since the Noble prize-winning findings of Huggins and Hodges, the androgen receptor (AR) has been the main target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer (CaP). Today, second- and even third-line androgen deprivation strategies, which have been designed rationally to interfere with the AR signaling that re-emerges under conditions of androgen deprivation and is at least in part responsible for disease recurrence, are effective in impeding progression of advanced CaP. The therapeutic success of these novel agents in CaP that has failed initial androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and subsequent chemotherapy is prompting studies to explore their use earlier in the course of CaP progression. Repositioning of these drugs, along with alterations in the timing, sequencing and/or combination of traditional or novel ADTs, either alone or in combination with radiation or chemo- or immuno-therapies are expected to broaden significantly the scope of treatment options for CaP. Despite the rapidly changing and continuously innovating landscape of CaP therapies that target AR activity, the terminology that is used to describe CaP androgen status has not evolved. Currently available nomenclature falls short in capturing the sustained androgen-responsiveness of mostCaPs after ADT, does not distinguish readily between CaP's responsiveness to androgens and other steroid hormones, and does not specify the treatment condition(s) under which CaP recurs. A novel vocabulary is introduced to solve these limitations and to facilitate optimal communication among physicians, scientists and CaP patients.
Heemers HV, Mohler JL. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA; Department of Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Reference: Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2014 Jul 12;2(2):121-6.