Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second ranked cause of cancer deaths in the United States.
The current standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) includes systemic therapies with no option for surgery. In contrast, in other malignancies such as breast and kidney cancer, cytoreduction plays an integral role in the treatment of metastatic disease. In this framework, there are emerging data that suggest a potential oncologic benefit to cytoreduction in mPCa. The majority of the data are retrospective in nature suggesting that patients with mPCa who had prior radical prostatectomy (RP) had a better survival, as well as improved response to systemic therapy. Similarly, patients who presented with metastatic disease and received definitive local therapy (RP or radiation) had greater survival than patients who received no treatment. In order to confer maximum potential benefit, operating in the setting of mPCa must be technically feasible with acceptable morbidity. It has been demonstrated in many studies that operating on locally advanced disease (T3a/b) does have similar morbidity as lower stage cancer. This may be applicable in the metastatic setting, because although PCa may have metastasized, it may remain locally advanced. On the molecular level there are a number of explanations concerning the potential benefit of cytoreduction. However, these ideas remain speculative with no concrete evidence to date.
Faiena I, Singer EA, Pumill C, Kim IY. Are you the author?
Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA.
Reference: Int J Oncol. 2014 Dec;45(6):2193-8.