BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of salvage androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy is controversial.
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We compared the outcomes of ultra-early versus early salvage ADT.
METHODS: Among 855 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at our institution between 2000 and 2012, we identified 121 with adjuvant-treatment-naïve pT2-4N0M0 prostate cancer who received salvage ADT for biochemical recurrence. These patients were divided into an ultra-early salvage ADT group (n = 51), who started salvage ADT before meeting the standardized definition of biochemical recurrence in Japan (two consecutive prostate-specific antigen [PSA] values ≥0.2 ng/ml), and an early salvage ADT group (n = 70) who started salvage ADT when they met the definition. The ultra-early ADT group consisted of those who started salvage ADT with a single PSA value ≥0.2 ng/ml (n = 30) or with two consecutive PSA values >0.1 ng/ml and rising (n = 21). The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence after salvage ADT, defined as a single PSA value ≥0.2 ng/ml after PSA nadir following salvage ADT. Secondary endpoints were clinical metastasis and cancer-specific survival. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. The median follow-up was 65.5 months.
RESULTS: Biochemical recurrence occurred in one patient (2.0%) in the ultra-early group and in 12 (17.1%) in the early salvage ADT group. Multivariate analysis identified ultra-early salvage ADT and preoperative Gleason score ≤ 7 as independent negative predictors of biochemical recurrence after salvage ADT. Only one patient in the early salvage ADT group developed clinical metastasis to a left supraclavicular lymph node, and no patient died from prostate cancer during follow-up. The major limitations of this study were its retrospective design, selection bias, and the possibility that the ultra-early salvage ADT group may have included patients without biochemical recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-early salvage ADT was an independent negative predictor of biochemical recurrence after salvage ADT in post-prostatectomy patients. Further consideration should be given to the use of salvage ADT before meeting the current definition of biochemical recurrence.
Taguchi S, Fukuhara H1, Azuma T, Suzuki M, Fujimura T, Nakagawa T, Ishikawa A, Kume H, Igawa Y, Homma Y. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.
Reference: BMC Urol. 2014 Oct 16;14:81.