Upgrading and upstaging in prostate cancer: From prostate biopsy to radical prostatectomy - Abstract

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of cancer-related mortality after lung cancer.

Several studies have evaluated the correlation between bioptic and pathological Gleason score (GS), documenting a correlation ranging between 30 and 60%. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the association between bioptic and pathological GS in a series of patients undergoing prostate needle biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy. We also aimed to evaluate the possible prognostic factors of upgrading and upstaging. We prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed data from 300 consecutive patients who underwent radical retropubic or robot-assisted prostatectomy at our Institution. Patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy, transrectal or transperineal, with a minimum of 5 samples, were included in this study. Upgrading and downgrading were defined as increase or decrease, respectively, from one prognostic grade group to another, similar to up- or downstaging. The mean age of the patients was 62.97 years and the mean prostate-spesific antigen (PSA) level was 7.83 ng/ml. A total of 51.3% of the population underwent a transperineal prostate biopsy. The most frequently represented bioptic GS was 3+3 (64.0%) followed by 3+4=7 (15.6%); the most frequent pathological Gleason score was 3+4 (44.3%), followed by 3+3 (31.0%). With reagard to the bioptic GS 4-5-6 group, approximately half of the specimens (46.7%) were subsequently upgraded to GS 3+4, and 5.3% to 4+3. With regards to the bioptic GS 3+4 group, 57.4% was confirmed in the surgical specimen. In the 4+3 group, 23.5% of the cases was downgraded to 3+4 and 35.3% was confirmed. With regards to stage, ~39.7% of the patients received an upstaging on the pathological specimen. We evaluated the correlations between preoperative serum PSA level, prostate volume, digital rectal examination and biopsy type and none of the variables considered exhibited a correlation with any upgrading (P>0.05). Moreover, we evaluated the correlations between the aforementioned variables and upstaging and, at the multivariate analysis, only a serum PSA < 4 ng/ml was found to be an independent variable predictive of upstaging (P=0.017). Therefore, new tools are required to predict upgrading and upstaging of our patients, in order to ensure better counseling for optimal treatment planning.

Written by:
D'Elia C, Cerruto MA, Cioffi A, Novella G, Cavalleri S, Artibani W.   Are you the author?
Department of Surgery, Urology Clinic, A.O.U.I. Verona, I-37134 Verona, Italy.

Reference: Mol Clin Oncol. 2014 Nov;2(6):1145-1149.
doi: 10.3892/mco.2014.370

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 25279213

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