The adoption of routine prostate specific antigen screening has led to the discovery of many small and low-grade prostate cancers which have a low probability of causing mortality. These cancers, however, are often treated with radical therapies resulting in long-term side effects. There has been increasing interest in minimally invasive focal therapies to treat these tumors. While imaging modalities have improved rapidly over the past decade, similar advances in image-guided therapy are now starting to emerge-potentially achieving equivalent oncologic efficacy while avoiding the side effects of conventional radical surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature regarding the basis of various focal therapy techniques such as cryotherapy, microwave, laser, and high intensity focused ultrasound, and to discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate early outcomes in patients with prostate cancer.
Sankineni S, Wood BJ, Rais-Bahrami S, Walton Diaz A, Hoang AN, Pinto PA, Choyke PL, Türkbey B. Are you the author?
Molecular Imaging Program, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Reference: Diagn Interv Radiol. 2014 Aug 29. Epub ahead of print.