BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In previous studies, obesity (measured according to the body mass index) has correlated inconsistently with the risk of biopsy-measured prostate cancer, and specifically high-grade prostate cancer.
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This meta-analysis aimed to clarify these correlations.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted for relevant studies published through January 2014. The pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were computed, and the meta-analysis was performed with the STATA software according to a random effects approach.
RESULTS: A total of 11 studies that included 29,464 individuals were identified. A 5-kg/m2 increase in body mass index was associated with a 15% (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.98-1.34) higher risk of prostate cancer detection and a 37% (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19-1.57) higher risk of high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy. There were no differences among the results of studies conducted in the USA, Europe or Asia. We also found that studies that had adjusted for prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination results, and prostate volumes obtained positive significant outcomes (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12-1.44), whereas studies that did not adjust for the above-mentioned confounding variables obtained negative results (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.68-1.25). Moreover, the positive correlation between body mass index and the detection of both prostate cancer and high-grade diseases tended to be stronger as the number of biopsy cores increased.
CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis demonstrated that a high body mass index correlated positively with prostate cancer detection, especially high-grade prostate cancer detection. The adoption of a modified and possibly more aggressive biopsy strategy was suggested for obese populations.
Hu MB, Liu SH, Jiang HW, Bai PD, Ding Q. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Urology Research Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Reference: PLoS One. 2014 Sep 3;9(9):e106677.