PURPOSE: We are often confronted with patients in the "gray zone" (prostate-specific antigen [PSA]< 10 ng/mL) whose biopsies reveal no malignancy but only inflammation.
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We investigated the relationship between histological inflammation and total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), and percentage of free PSA (f/tPSA) levels in patients without prostate cancer (PC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 106 men with tPSA< 10 ng/mL who had undergone biopsy that was negative for PC and who had no clinical prostatitis. Inflammation observed at biopsies was scored for inflammation type in each biopsy core by use of a four-point scale and was then correlated with tPSA, fPSA, and f/tPSA.
RESULTS: Different patterns of inflammation were found in each set of biopsies. Regression factor analysis was used to form two groups according to inflammation type: more chronic and more acute. Median tPSA, fPSA, and f/tPSA levels in the more chronic and more acute inflammation groups were 6.4 ng/mL, 1.09 ng/mL, and 15%, and 7.3 ng/mL, 0.79 ng/mL, and l2%, respectively. A significant difference was found in fPSA (p=0.003) and f/tPSA (p< 0.001), whereas the difference in tPSA was not significant (p=0.200). Total PSA correlated with fPSA (r=0.4, p< 0.001) but not with inflammation type (r=0.12, p>0.010). A correlation existed between inflammation type and fPSA (r=-0.31, p=0.001) and f/tPSA (r=-0.43, p< 0.001) in that the fPSA and f/tPSA were lower in the group with more acute inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical inflammation has a significant influence on fPSA in patients with tPSA< 10 ng/mL but without PC or clinical prostatitis. Subclinical inflammation is not characterized by elevated tPSA alone but also by a decreased fPSA, a tendency similar to that in PC.
Stimac G, Spajic B, Reljic A, Katusic J, Popovic A, Grubisic I, Tomas D. Are you the author?
Clinical Department of Urology, "Sestre milosrdnice" University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia; "Ljudevit Jurak" Department of Pathology, "Sestre milosrdnice" University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia.
Reference: Korean J Urol. 2014 Aug;55(8):527-32.