BACKGROUND: The hybrid tracer was introduced to complement intraoperative radiotracing towards the sentinel nodes (SNs) with fluorescence guidance.
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OBJECTIVE: Improve in vivo fluorescence-based SN identification for prostate cancer by optimising hybrid tracer preparation, injection technique, and fluorescence imaging hardware.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients with a Briganti nomogram-based risk >10% of lymph node (LN) metastases were included. After intraprostatic tracer injection, SN mapping was performed (lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT)). In groups 1 and 2, SNs were pursued intraoperatively using a laparoscopic gamma probe followed by fluorescence imaging (FI). In group 3, SNs were initially located via FI. Compared with group 1, in groups 2 and 3, a new tracer formulation was introduced that had a reduced total injected volume (2.0ml vs 3.2ml) but increased particle concentration. For groups 1 and 2, the Tricam SLII with D-Light C laparoscopic FI (LFI) system was used. In group 3, the LFI system was upgraded to an Image 1 HUB HD with D-Light P system.
INTERVENTION: Hybrid tracer-based SN biopsy, extended pelvic lymph node dissection, and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Number and location of the preoperatively identified SNs, in vivo fluorescence-based SN identification rate, tumour status of SNs and LNs, postoperative complications, and biochemical recurrence (BCR).
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Mean fluorescence-based SN identification improved from 63.7% (group 1) to 85.2% and 93.5% for groups 2 and 3, respectively (p=0.012). No differences in postoperative complications were found. BCR occurred in three pN0 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Stepwise optimisation of the hybrid tracer formulation and the LFI system led to a significant improvement in fluorescence-assisted SN identification. Preoperative SPECT-CT remained essential for guiding intraoperative SN localisation.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Intraoperative fluorescence-based SN visualisation can be improved by enhancing the hybrid tracer formulation and laparoscopic fluorescence imaging system.
KleinJan GH, van den Berg NS, Brouwer OR, de Jong J, Acar C, Wit EM, Vegt E, van der Noort V, Valdés Olmos RA, van Leeuwen FW, van der Poel HG. Are you the author?
Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Urology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Acibadem University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Biometrics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Reference: Eur Urol. 2014 Aug 1. pii: S0302-2838(14)00654-X.