Adjuvant radiotherapy versus wait-and-see after radical prostatectomy: 10-Year follow-up of the ARO 96-02/AUO AP 09/95 trial - Abstract

BACKGROUND: Local failure after radical prostatectomy (RP) is common in patients with cancer extending beyond the capsule.

Three prospectively randomized trials demonstrated an advantage for adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) compared with a wait-and-see (WS) policy.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficiency of ART after a 10-yr follow-up in the ARO 96-02 study.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: After RP, 388 patients with pT3 pN0 prostate cancer (PCa) were randomized to WS or three-dimensional conformal ART with 60Gy. The present analysis focuses on intent-to-treat patients who achieved an undetectable prostate-specific antigen after RP (ITT2 population)-that is, 159 WS plus 148 ART men.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary end point of the study was progression-free survival (PFS) (events: biochemical recurrence, clinical recurrence, or death). Outcomes were compared by log-rank test. Cox regression analysis served to identify variables influencing the course of disease.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median follow-up was 111 mo for ART and 113 mo for WS. At 10 yr, PFS was 56% for ART and 35% for WS (p< 0.0001). In pT3b and R1 patients, the rates for WS even dropped to 28% and 27%, respectively. Of all 307 ITT2 patients, 15 died from PCa, and 28 died for other or unknown reasons. Neither metastasis-free survival nor overall survival was significantly improved by ART. However, the study was underpowered for these end points. The worst late sequelae in the ART cohort were one grade 3 and three grade 2 cases of bladder toxicity and two grade 2 cases of rectum toxicity. No grade 4 events occurred.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with WS, ART reduced the risk of (biochemical) progression with a hazard ratio of 0.51 in pT3 PCa. With only one grade 3 case of late toxicity, ART was safe.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Precautionary radiotherapy counteracts relapse after surgery for prostate cancer with specific risk factors.

Written by:
Wiegel T, Bartkowiak D, Bottke D, Bronner C, Steiner U, Siegmann A, Golz R, Störkel S, Willich N, Semjonow A, Stöckle M, Rübe C, Rebmann U, Kälble T, Feldmann HJ, Wirth M, Hofmann R, Engenhart-Cabillic R, Hinke A, Hinkelbein W, Miller K.   Are you the author?
Institution(s): See publishing journal.

Reference: Eur Urol. 2014 Mar 21. pii: S0302-2838(14)00247-4.
doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.03.011

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 24680359 Prostate Cancer Section