Early salvage radiation therapy combined with short-term hormonal therapy in recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: Single-institution 4-year data on outcome, toxicity, health-related quality of life and co-morbidities from 184 consecutive

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 70 Gy salvage radiotherapy (SRT) combined with short-term neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) in the treatment of recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy (RP), and to consider quality of life (QoL), survival outcomes and impact of co-morbidities on treatment-related rectal-genitourinary toxicity.

Electronic records of 184 SRT patients treated consecutively between October 2001 and February 2007 were analyzed. Median age was 64 years (median follow-up 48 months). NHT was given to 165 patients (median 3 months). Pre-RP and pre-SRT PSA, PSA doubling time, Gleason score (GS), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and detectable post-SRT PSA were recorded. Any detectable PSA or PSA >0.1 ng/ml + nadir was considered biochemical failure (BcF). The Charlson co-morbidity index was used to correlate co-morbidities and rectal-genitourinary toxicity. Scores from the health-related QoL EORTC QLQ-C30 and PR-25 questionnaires were also evaluated. In 116 (63%) patients, a long-lasting curative effect was indicated by undetectable PSA levels. In univariate analysis, using BcF as an outcome variable, p< 0.001 was found for GS, pre-SRT PSA, SVI and detectable post-SRT PSA. Multivariate analysis showed p=0.01 for SVI, p=0.09 for GS, and detectable post-SRT PSA (p=0.01); with metastases as an outcome variable, only SVI was significant (p=0.007). Cancer-specific and overall survival were 99 and 95%, respectively. Although microscopy showed SVI or GS 8-10 in the prostatectomy specimens 17/40 (43%) and 13/29 (45%), respectively, of patients still showed undetectable PSA at long-term follow-up (median 55 months) after SRT. Likewise, 11/31 (36%) patients with pre-SRT PSA >1.0 ng/ml and 80/134 (60%) patients with PSA doubling time (PSADT) < 10 still showed undetectable PSA after 50 months. Slightly elevated acute and late rectal-genitourinary grade 3-4 toxicity was observed. No association with co-morbidity/toxicity was found. EORTC QLQ-C30 scores were similar to or slightly better than reference values. SRT with 70 Gy combined with 3-month NHT results in long-term undetectable PSA in >50% of patients with recurrence after RP with acceptable rectal-genitourinary toxicity and without negatively affecting long-term QoL. Non-metastatic patients should not be disqualified from receiving SRT although presenting with poor prognostic factors at surgery.

Written by:
Cortés-González JR, Castellanos E, Sandberg K, Eriksson MH, Wiklund P, Carlsson S, Cohn-Cedermark G, Harmenberg U, Gustafsson O, Levitt SH, Lennernäs B, Brandberg Y, Márquez M, Kälkner KM, Nilsson S.   Are you the author?
Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Reference: Int J Oncol. 2013 Jan;42(1):109-17.
doi: 10.3892/ijo.2012.1694

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 23151842

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