Diffusion-weighted MRI for locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy - Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were to establish the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of tumor and nontumor irradiated tissues in patients with suspected postradiation recurrence of prostate cancer and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a combination of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detecting local recurrence.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with rising prostate-specific antigen levels after having completed radiation therapy 30-130 months earlier (median, 62 months) underwent endorectal T2-weighted imaging and DWI (b = 0, 100, 300, 500, and 800 s/mm(2)) followed by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. Images were scored prospectively as positive for tumor if a region of low signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging within the prostate corresponded with a focally restricted area on the ADC map. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the suspicious lesion on a single slice of the ADC map and a corresponding ROI was drawn around presumed nontumor irradiated peripheral zone and central gland tissues on the opposite side of the prostate. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined against TRUS-guided biopsy reference standard (octant, n = 17; sextant, n = 5; two samples, n = 1; 12 samples, n = 1).

RESULTS: Sixteen of 24 patients (66.7%) had positive histology findings. The median tumor ROI area was 0.37 cm2 (quartiles, 0.30 and 0.82 cm2). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for detecting tumor were 93.8%, 75%, 88.2%, and 85.7%, respectively. A cutoff ADC of 1216 × 10-6 mm2/s could predict tumor with 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.992).

CONCLUSION: An ADC derived from DWI is a useful adjunct to T2-weighted MRI for detecting local tumor recurrence larger than 0.4 cm2 within the prostate.

Written by: 
Morgan VA, Riches SF, Giles S, Dearnaley D, deSouza NM. Are you the author? 
Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Reference: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012 Mar;198(3):596-602. 
doi: 10.2214/AJR.11.7162

PubMed Abstract 
PMID: 22357998