Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht; Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen; Catharina Ziekenhuis, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
To assess the risk of second primary cancer (SPC) after [125I]iodine prostate cancer brachytherapy compared with prostatectomy and the general population.
In a cohort consisting of 1,888 patients with prostate cancer who received monotherapy with brachytherapy (n = 1,187; 63%) or prostatectomy (n = 701; 37%), SPC incidences were retrieved by linkage with the Dutch Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) were calculated for comparison.
A total of 223 patients were diagnosed with SPC, 136 (11%) after brachytherapy and 87 (12%) after prostatectomy, with a median follow-up of 7.5 years. The SIR for all malignancies, bladder cancer, and rectal cancer were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.12), 1.69 (95% CI, 0.98 to 2.70), and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.41 to 1.72) for brachytherapy and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.83 to 2.28), 1.82 (95% CI, 0.87 to 3.35), and 1.50 (95% CI, 0.68 to 2.85) for prostatectomy, respectively. Bladder SPC risk was significantly increased after brachytherapy for patients age 60 years or younger (SIR, 5.84; 95% CI, 2.14 to 12.71; AER, 24.03) and in the first 4 years of follow-up (SIR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 3.94; AER, 12.24). Adjusted for age, the hazard ratio (brachytherapy v prostatectomy) for all SPCs combined was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.18).
Overall, we found no difference in SPC incidence between patients with prostate cancer treated with prostatectomy or brachytherapy. Furthermore, no increased tumor incidence was found compared with the general population. We observed a higher than expected incidence of bladder SPC after brachytherapy in the first 4 years of follow-up, probably resulting from lead time or screening bias. Because of power limitations, a small increased SPC risk cannot be formally excluded.
Hinnen KA, Schaapveld M, van Vulpen M, Battermann JJ, van der Poel H, van Oort IM, van Roermund JG, Monninkhof EM. Are you the author?
Reference: J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 24. Epub ahead of print.