Division of Urology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.Division of Urology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Limited survival benefit and excess treatment because of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in randomized trials suggests a need for more restricted selection of prostate biopsy candidates by discerning risk of histologically aggressive versus indolent cancer before biopsy.
Subjects undergoing first prostate biopsy enrolled in a multicenter, prospective cohort of the National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network (N = 635) were analyzed to develop a model for predicting histologically aggressive prostate cancers. The control arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (N = 3833) was used to validate the generalization of the predictive model.
The Early Detection Research Network cohort was comprised of men among whom 57% had no cancer, 14% had indolent cancer, and 29% had aggressive cancer. Age, body mass index, family history of prostate cancer, abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE), and PSA density (PSAD) were associated with aggressive cancer (all P < .001). The Early Detection Research Network model outperformed PSA alone in predicting aggressive cancer (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81 vs 0.71, P < .01). Model validation in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial cohort accurately identified men at low (< 10%) risk of aggressive cancer for whom biopsy could be averted (AUC = 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.80). Under criteria from the Early Detection Research Network model, prostate biopsy can be restricted to men with PSAD >0.1 ng/mL/cc or abnormal DRE. When PSAD is < 0.1 ng/mL/cc, family history or obesity can identify biopsy candidates.
A predictive model incorporating age, family history, obesity, PSAD, and DRE elucidates criteria whereby ¼ of prostate biopsies can be averted while retaining high sensitivity in detecting aggressive prostate cancer.
Williams SB, Salami S, Regan MM, Ankerst DP, Wei JT, Rubin MA, Thompson IM, Sanda MG. Are you the author?
Reference: Cancer. 2011 Oct 17. Epub ahead of print.