Department of Urology, Foch Hospital, Suresnes, France.
We characterized the aggressiveness of prostate cancer by Gleason score and predominant Gleason pattern in relation to preoperative serum testosterone.
In a prospective study serum total testosterone was measured preoperatively in patients referred to our department from January 2007 to January 2011 for radical prostatectomy. Gleason score and predominant Gleason pattern were determined in prostate biopsy and prostate tissue specimens.
A total of 431 patients were enrolled in the study. In biopsies a predominant Gleason pattern 4 was observed in 72 patients (17%). In prostate specimens the predominant Gleason pattern 4 increased to 132 patients (31%). In the 132 patients total testosterone was lower than in the 299 with predominant Gleason pattern 3 (4.00 vs 4.50 ng/ml, p = 0.001), prostate specific antigen was higher (8.4 vs 6.6 ng/ml, p < 0.00001), and extraprostatic extension and positive margins were noted more often (49% vs 20% and 23% vs 14%, p < 0.000001 and 0.02, respectively). The 62 patients with total testosterone less than 3.0 ng/ml were larger (mean 7 kg, p = 0.0001) with a higher body mass index (mean 0.5 kg/m(2), p < 0.000001). They had a higher percent of Gleason score with predominant Gleason pattern 4 (47% vs 28%, p = 0.002).
Low total testosterone is associated with a higher percent of predominant Gleason pattern 4, a signature of prostate cancer aggressiveness. Tumor aggressiveness cannot be accurately estimated by biopsy Gleason score and predominant Gleason pattern. Preoperative total testosterone should be added to prostate specific antigen determination to improve management for prostate cancer.
Botto H, Neuzillet Y, Lebret T, Camparo P, Molinie V, Raynaud JP. Are you the author?
Reference: J Urol. 2011 Aug 17. Epub ahead of print.