Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.Durham VA Medical Center and Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; Federal University of Health Sciences and Santa Casa Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; GlaxoSmithKline, Oncology R&D, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, PA, USA.
Study Type - Prognostic (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b.
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Previous studies used the decrease in PSA after 6 months of dutasteride treatment as a new 'baseline' PSA value from which subsequent rises may serve as a warning for prostate cancer; however, PSA tends to continue to decrease as dutasteride treatment continues. By comparing positive biopsy rates in the REDUCE study using any rise from nadir in the dutasteride arm and standard PSA decision criteria (NCCN) in the placebo arm, we demonstrated that the ability to detect prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer is maintained with dutasteride treatment.
To determine if dutasteride-treated men can be monitored safely and adequately for prostate cancer based on data from the Reduction by Dutasteride in Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) study. To analyse whether the use of treatment-specific criteria for repeat biopsy maintains the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level for detecting high grade cancers.
The REDUCE study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of whether dutasteride (0.5 mg/day) reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in men with a previous negative biopsy. The usefulness of PSA was evaluated using biopsy thresholds defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines in the placebo group and any rise in PSA from nadir (the lowest PSA level achieved while in the study) in the dutasteride group. The number of cancers detected on biopsy in the absence of increased/suspicious PSA level as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for high grade prostate cancer detection were analysed by treatment group. Prostate cancer pathological characteristics were compared between men who did and did not meet biopsy thresholds.
Of 8231 men randomized, 3305 (dutasteride) and 3424 (placebo) underwent at least one prostate biopsy during the study and were included in the analysis. If only men meeting biopsy thresholds underwent biopsy, 25% (47/191) of Gleason 7 and 24% (7/29) of Gleason 8-10 cancers would have been missed in the dutasteride group, and 37% (78/209) of Gleason 7 and 22% (4/18) Gleason 8-10 cancers would have been missed in the placebo group. In both groups, the incidence of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 cancers generally increased with greater rises in PSA. Sensitivity of PSA kinetics was higher and specificity was lower for the detection of Gleason 7-10 cancers in men treated with dutasteride vs placebo. Men with Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 cancer meeting biopsy thresholds had greater numbers of positive cores, percent core involvement, and biopsy cancer volume vs men not meeting thresholds.
Using treatment-specific biopsy thresholds, the present study shows that the ability of PSA kinetics to detect high grade prostate cancer is maintained with dutasteride compared with placebo in men with a previous negative biopsy. The sensitivity of PSA kinetics with dutasteride was similar to (Gleason 8-10) or higher than (Gleason 7-10) the placebo group; however, biopsy decisions based on a single increased PSA measurement from nadir in the dutasteride group resulted in a lower specificity compared with using a comparable biopsy threshold in the placebo group, indicating the importance of confirmation of PSA measurements.
Marberger M, Freedland SJ, Andriole GL, Emberton M, Pettaway C, Montorsi F, Teloken C, Rittmaster RS, Somerville MC, Castro R. Are you the author?
Reference: BJU Int. 2011 Jun 23. Epub ahead of print.