Redefining high-risk prostate cancer based on distant metastases and mortality after high-dose radiotherapy with androgen deprivation therapy - Abstract

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.


Modern outcomes of high-dose external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for high-risk (HR) prostate cancer are not well described.

We identified 585 patients who met HR criteria by 2010 National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, who were treated with EBRT consisting of ≥74 Gy from 1996 to 2008 at Cleveland Clinic, of whom 95% received ADT. We analyzed biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM).

The median EBRT dose was 78 Gy, and median ADT duration was 6 months. At 10 years, the bRFS was 50.2%, the DMFS was 71.6%, and the PCSM was 14.4%. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of bRFS were biopsy Gleason score (bGS) of 8 to 10, stage T3, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration; predictors of DMFS were bGS of 8 to 10 and stage T3; the only predictor of PCSM was bGS of 8 to 10. The duration of ADT was not predictive of any endpoint. We identified an unfavorable high-risk (UHR) group of stage T1-T2 tumors consisting of bGS of 8 with PSA of >10 ng/ml or bGS of 9 to 10 with any PSA level; the remaining clinically localized cancers comprised the favorable high-risk (FHR) group. Comparing FHR, UHR, and stage T3 groups, the DMFS rates were 81.4%, 57.8%, and 59.1% (p < 0.0001), and the PCSM rates were 7.5%, 28.4%, and 20.6% at 10 years, respectively (p = 0.006).

A bGS of 8 to 10 is the strongest predictor of bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM after high-dose EBRT with ADT. The duration of ADT did not correlate with outcome. Future studies should account for the heterogeneity in HR prostate cancer.

Written by:
Tendulkar RD, Reddy CA, Stephans KL, Ciezki JP, Klein EA, Mahadevan A, Kupelian PA.   Are you the author?

Reference: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Jun 11. Epub ahead of print.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.04.042

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 21665379 Prostate Cancer Section