Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL.
Intratumoral hypoxia is known to be associated with radioresistance and metastasis. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on the metastatic potential of prostate cancer PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells.
Cell proliferation and clonogenicity were tested by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. "Wound-healing" and Matrigel-based chamber assays were used to monitor cell motility and invasion. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression was tested by Western blot, and HIF-1-target gene expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined by gelatin zymography.
When PC-3 cells were exposed to 1% oxygen (hypoxia) for various periods of time, chronic hypoxia (≥24 h) decreased cell proliferation and induced cell death. In contrast, prostate cancer cells exposed to acute hypoxia (≤ 6 h) displayed increased motility, clonogenic survival, and invasive capacity. At the molecular level, both hypoxia and anoxia transiently stabilized HIF-1α. Exposure to hypoxia also induced the early expression of MMP-2, an invasiveness-related gene. Treatment with the HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced migration, invasion, and MMP-2 activity.
The length of oxygen deprivation strongly affected the functional behavior of all three prostate cancer cell lines. Acute hypoxia in particular was found to promote a more aggressive metastatic phenotype.
Dai Y, Bae K, Siemann DW. Are you the author?
Reference: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011 Jun 1. Epub ahead of print.