Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.
The accuracy of prostate specific antigen (PSA) to detect prostate cancer has not yet been determined. Autopsy evidence suggests one-third of men have evidence of prostate cancer. Correlation between prostate cancer and sexually transmitted infection is indeterminate.
A retrospective database was created of all men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy over 3 years. Men were 49% African or African Caribbean, and 51% Central or South American. Information about prostate specific antigen, cholesterol, hepatitis A, B and C, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, tuberculin skin testing and histology were collected.
Hepatitis C antibody detection correlated with prostate cancer OR 11.2 (95% CI 3.0 to 72.4). The odds of prostate cancer increased annually (p = 0.0003). However, no correlation was found between prostate cancer and the following: PSA, biopsy date, repeat biopsy, more than 12 cores at biopsy, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, risk measure reported with free and total PSA, hepatitis B surface antibody, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation. Histologic prostatitis and basal cell hyperplasia were inversely correlated with prostate cancer. Syphilis of unknown duration occurred in 17% of men with indeterminate correlation to prostate cancer.
In Inner City men of African and African-Caribbean, or Central and South American descent, prostate specific antigen levels did not correlate with prostate cancer. Hepatitis C antibody detection correlates significantly with prostate cancer. One prostate biopsy is sufficient to diagnose statistically significant prostate cancer. Histologic prostatitis and basal cell hyperplasia decrease odds of prostate cancer. Atypical small acinar proliferation may not correlate to prostate cancer and is pending further investigation. Men should be screened for epidemic syphilis of unknown duration.
Krystyna A, Safi T, Briggs WM, Schwalb MD. Are you the author?
Reference: Int Braz J Urol. 2011 Mar-Apr;37(2):223-30.