Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Irvine.Vaccine Research Institute of San Diego; Althea Technologies Inc., San Diego; The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California; Cancer Research Institute, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida; Veteran Affairs Medical Center, San Diego; Department of Pathology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla; Department of Urology, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Irvine, Irvine; Proveri Inc., San Diego, California; and Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, Arizona.
More than one million prostate biopsies are performed in the United States every year. A failure to find cancer is not definitive in a significant percentage of patients due to the presence of equivocal structures or continuing clinical suspicion. We have identified gene expression changes in stroma that can detect tumor nearby. We compared gene expression profiles of 13 biopsies containing stroma near tumor and 15 biopsies from volunteers without prostate cancer. About 3,800 significant expression changes were found and thereafter filtered using independent expression profiles to eliminate possible age-related genes and genes expressed at detectable levels in tumor cells. A stroma-specific classifier for nearby tumor was constructed on the basis of 114 candidate genes and tested on 364 independent samples including 243 tumor-bearing samples and 121 nontumor samples (normal biopsies, normal autopsies, remote stroma, as well as stroma within a few millimeters of tumor). The classifier predicted the tumor status of patients using tumor-free samples with an average accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) whereas classifiers trained with sets of 100 randomly generated genes had no diagnostic value. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for categorizing the presence of tumor in patients when a prostate sample is derived from near the tumor but does not contain any recognizable tumor.
Jia Z, Wang Y, Sawyers A, Yao H, Rahmatpanah F, Xia XQ, Xu Q, Pio R, Turan T, Koziol JA, Goodison S, Carpenter P, Wang-Rodriguez J, Simoneau A, Meyskens F, Sutton M, Lernhardt W, Beach T, Monforte J, McClelland M, Mercola D. Are you the author?
Reference: Cancer Res. 2011 Apr 1;71(7):2476-2487.