National Center for Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.
Prostate cancer is reported to be more aggressive in Blacks. We studied the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in Ghana, in order to determine the factors responsible for them and to find out if there is any relationship between them.
Patients referred with a biopsy proven diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate to the Cancer Center of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, from 2003 to 2007 were studied. Information with respect to age at diagnosis, presenting symptoms, initial PSA (iPSA), Gleason score, and disease extent were studied. Age was partitioned into 50-65 and >65 years, Gleason score into 2-6, 7, and 8-10, iPSA into 4-20 ng/ml and >20, and disease extent into T1, T2, vs. T3, T4, M1, and the relationship between them was determined. Various presenting symptoms were described. Known risk factors and screening in a context of high grade disease is discussed.
A total of 170 patients were studied. Mean age was 65.4 years. Majority of patients (73.7%) presented with an iPSA > 20 ng/ml, whilst 22 (14.1%) had PSA < 10 ng/ml. Gleason score ≥ 7 was found in 95 (56%) of patients. Asymptomatic patients constituted 24.0%, the rest had bone pain (22.6%), urinary (50.4%), and neurologic symptoms (3.0%).There was a statistically significant relationship between age and Gleason score (P = 0.049), PSA and Gleason score (P = 0.0001), and between extent of disease and Gleason score (P = 0.0002). High fat diet and low intake of fruits and vegetables are probable risk factors in Ghana.
Majority of patients present with symptomatic disease at a relatively older age. These patients tend to have high Gleason score partly attributable to advanced disease, age, PSA at the time of diagnosis, and race. Screening with PSA should be recommended and individualized in this group of patients in order to allow diagnosis of less aggressive disease until better screening tools are identified.
Yarney J, Vanderpuye V, Mensah J. Are you the author?
Reference: Urol Oncol. 2011 Mar 25. Epub ahead of print.