Genomics in active surveillance and post-prostatectomy patients: A review of when and how to use effectively.

Prostate cancer (PCa) represents a significant health burden globally, ranking as the most diagnosed cancer among men and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Conventional treatment methods such as radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy have significant side effects which often impact quality of life. As our understanding of the natural history and progression of PCa has evolved, so has the evolution of management options.

Active surveillance (AS) has become an increasingly favored approach to the management of very low, low, and properly selected favorable intermediate risk PCa. AS permits ongoing observation and postpones intervention until definitive treatment is required. There are, however, challenges with selecting patients for AS, which further emphasizes the need for more precise tools to better risk stratify patients and choose candidates more accurately. Tissue-based biomarkers, such as ProMark, Prolaris, GPS (formerly Oncotype DX), and Decipher, are valuable because they improve the accuracy of patient selection for AS and offer important information on the prognosis and severity of disease. By enabling patients to be categorized according to their risk profiles, these biomarkers help physicians and patients make better informed treatment choices and lower the possibility of overtreatment. Even with their potential, further standardization and validation of these biomarkers is required to guarantee their broad clinical utility. Active surveillance has emerged as a preferred strategy for managing low-risk prostate cancer, and tissue-based biomarkers play a crucial role in refining patient selection and risk stratification. Standardization and validation of these biomarkers are essential to ensure their widespread clinical use and optimize patient outcomes.

Current urology reports. 2024 Jun 13 [Epub ahead of print]

Adedayo Adetunji, Nikit Venishetty, Nita Gombakomba, Karl-Ray Jeune, Matthew Smith, Andrew Winer

Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY, USA. ., Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX, USA., Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY, USA.