Prostate Cancer Recurrence: Examining the Role of Salvage Radiotherapy Field and Risk Factors for Regional Disease Recurrence Captured on 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT.

The role of elective pelvic nodal irradiation in salvage radiotherapy (sRT) remains controversial. Utilizing 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT, this study aimed to investigate differences in disease distribution after whole pelvic (WPRT) or prostate bed (PBRT) radiotherapy and to identify risk factors for pelvic lymph node (LN) relapse.

This retrospective study included patients with PSA > 0.1 ng/mL post-radical prostatectomy (RP) or post-RP and sRT who underwent 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT. Disease distribution on 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT after sRT was compared using Chi-square tests. Risk factors were tested for association with pelvic LN relapse after RP and salvage PBRT using logistic regression.

979 18F-DCFPyL PET/CTs performed at our institution between 1/1/2022 - 3/24/2023 were analyzed. There were 246 patients meeting criteria, of which 84 received salvage RT after RP (post-salvage RT group) and 162 received only RP (post-RP group). Salvage PBRT patients (n = 58) had frequent pelvic nodal (53.6%) and nodal-only (42.6%) relapse. Salvage WPRT patients (n = 26) had comparatively lower rates of pelvic nodal (16.7%, p = 0.002) and nodal-only (19.2%, p = 0.04) relapse. The proportion of distant metastases did not differ between the two groups. Multiple patient characteristics, including ISUP grade and seminal vesicle invasion, were associated with pelvic LN disease in the post-RP group.

At PSA persistence or progression, salvage WPRT resulted in lower rates of nodal involvement than salvage PBRT, but did not reduce distant metastases. Certain risk factors increase the likelihood of pelvic LN relapse after RP and can help inform salvage RT field selection.

Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2024 May 01 [Epub ahead of print]

Miles Hsu, Xinhe Shan, Rebecca Zhang, Eva Berlin, Arun Goel, Manuj Agarwal, Yu-Ning Wong, John P Christodouleas, David J Vaughn, Vivek Narayan, Samuel U Takvorian, Neha Vapiwala, Austin R Pantel, Naomi B Haas

Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA., Department of Medicine, Montefiore Einstein, New York, NY., Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA., Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA., Agarwal Medical LLC, Radnor, PA., Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: .