Access to Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing and Mortality Among Men With Prostate Cancer.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer is controversial but may be associated with benefit for certain high-risk groups.

To evaluate associations of county-level PSA screening prevalence with prostate cancer outcomes, as well as variation by sociodemographic and clinical factors.

This cohort study used data from cancer registries based in 8 US states on Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White men aged 40 to 99 years who received a diagnosis of prostate cancer between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. Participants were followed up until death or censored after 10 years or December 31, 2018, whichever end point came first. Data were analyzed between September 2023 and January 2024.

County-level PSA screening prevalence was estimated using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data from 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012 and weighted by population characteristics.

Multivariable logistic, Cox proportional hazards regression, and competing risks models were fit to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) for associations of county-level PSA screening prevalence at diagnosis with advanced stage (regional or distant), as well as all-cause and prostate cancer-specific survival.

Of 814 987 men with prostate cancer, the mean (SD) age was 67.3 (9.8) years, 7.8% were Hispanic, 12.2% were non-Hispanic Black, and 80.0% were non-Hispanic White; 17.0% had advanced disease. There were 247 570 deaths over 5 716 703 person-years of follow-up. Men in the highest compared with lowest quintile of county-level PSA screening prevalence at diagnosis had lower odds of advanced vs localized stage (AOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.85-0.88), lower all-cause mortality (AHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.85-0.87), and lower prostate cancer-specific mortality (AHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.85). Inverse associations between PSA screening prevalence and advanced cancer were strongest among men of Hispanic ethnicity vs other ethnicities (AOR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.87), older vs younger men (aged ≥70 years: AOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.79), and those in the Northeast vs other US Census regions (AOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.84). Inverse associations with all-cause mortality were strongest among men of Hispanic ethnicity vs other ethnicities (AHR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.85), younger vs older men (AHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.85), those with advanced vs localized disease (AHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.78-0.82), and those in the West vs other US Census regions (AHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87-0.90).

This population-based cohort study of men with prostate cancer suggests that higher county-level prevalence of PSA screening was associated with lower odds of advanced disease, all-cause mortality, and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Associations varied by age, race and ethnicity, and US Census region.

JAMA network open. 2024 Jun 03*** epublish ***

Hari S Iyer, Benjamin V Stone, Charlotte Roscoe, Mei-Chin Hsieh, Antoinette M Stroup, Charles L Wiggins, Fredrick R Schumacher, Scarlett L Gomez, Timothy R Rebbeck, Quoc-Dien Trinh

Section of Cancer Epidemiology and Health Outcomes, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick., Department of Urology and Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts., Division of Population Sciences, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts., Louisiana Tumor Registry and Epidemiology Program, School of Public Health at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans., Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, New Jersey., New Mexico Tumor Registry, University of New Mexico Comprehensive Cancer Center, Albuquerque., Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco.