Incidence of prostate cancer in Medicaid beneficiaries with and without HIV in 2001-2015 in 14 states.

Prostate cancer is projected to be the most common cancer among people living with HIV; however, incidence of prostate cancer has been reported to be lower in men with HIV compared to men without HIV with little evidence to explain this difference. We describe prostate cancer incidence by HIV status in Medicaid beneficiaries, allowing for comparison of men with and without HIV who are similar with respect to socioeconomic characteristics and access to healthcare.

Medicaid beneficiaries (N=15,167,636) aged 18-64 with ≥7 months of continuous enrollment during 2001-2015 in 14 US states were retained for analysis. Diagnoses of HIV and prostate cancer were identified using inpatient and other non-drug claims. We estimated cause-specific (csHR) and sub-distribution hazard ratios comparing incidence of prostate cancer by HIV status, adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, state of residence, year of enrollment, and comorbid conditions. Models were additionally stratified by age and race-ethnicity.

There were 366 cases of prostate cancer observed over 299,976 person-years among beneficiaries with HIV and 17,224 cases over 22,298,914 person-years in beneficiaries without HIV. The hazard of prostate cancer was lower in men with HIV than men without HIV (csHR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99), but varied by race-ethnicity, with similar observations among non-Hispanic Black (csHR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.91) and Hispanic (csHR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.09), but not non-Hispanic white men (csHR=1.17; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.50). Results were similar in models restricted to ages 50-64 and 40-49, except for a higher hazard of prostate cancer in Hispanic men with HIV in their 40s, while the hazard of prostate cancer was higher in men with HIV across all models for men aged 18-39.

Reported deficits in prostate cancer incidence by HIV status may be restricted to specific groups defined by age and race-ethnicity.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences. 2024 May 25*** epublish ***

Filip Pirsl, Keri Calkins, Jacqueline E Rudolph, Eryka Wentz, Xiaoqiang Xu, Bryan Lau, Corinne E Joshu