Exploring the tumor genomic landscape of aggressive prostate cancer by whole-genome sequencing of tissue or liquid biopsies.

Treatment resistance remains a major issue in aggressive prostate cancer (PC), and novel genomic biomarkers may guide better treatment selection. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can provide minimally invasive information about tumor genomes, but the genomic landscape of aggressive PC based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of ctDNA remains incompletely characterized. Thus, we here performed WGS of tumor tissue (n = 31) or plasma ctDNA (n = 10) from a total of 41 aggressive PC patients, including 11 hormone-naïve, 15 hormone-sensitive, and 15 castration-resistant patients. Across all variant types, we found progressively more altered tumor genomic profiles in later stages of aggressive PC. The potential driver genes most frequently affected by single-nucleotide variants or insertions/deletions included the known PC-related genes TP53, CDK12, and PTEN and the novel genes COL13A1, KCNH3, and SENP3. Etiologically, aggressive PC was associated with age-related and DNA repair-related mutational signatures. Copy number variants most frequently affected 14q11.2 and 8p21.2, where no well-recognized PC-related genes are located, and also frequently affected regions near the known PC-related genes MYC, AR, TP53, PTEN, and BRCA1. Structural variants most frequently involved not only the known PC-related genes TMPRSS2 and ERG but also the less extensively studied gene in this context, PTPRD. Finally, clinically actionable variants were detected throughout all stages of aggressive PC and in both plasma and tissue samples, emphasizing the potential clinical applicability of WGS of minimally invasive plasma samples. Overall, our study highlights the feasibility of using liquid biopsies for comprehensive genomic characterization as an alternative to tissue biopsies in advanced/aggressive PC.

International journal of cancer. 2024 Apr 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Simone Weiss, Philippe Lamy, Maria Rusan, Maibritt Nørgaard, Benedicte Parm Ulhøi, Michael Knudsen, Christine Gaasdal Kassentoft, Leila Farajzadeh, Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen, Jakob Skou Pedersen, Michael Borre, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen

Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.