Genitourinary toxicity in patients receiving TURP prior to hypofractionated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: A scoping review.

When compared with conventional external beam radiotherapy, hypofractionated radiotherapy has led to less treatment sessions and improved quality of life without compromising oncological outcomes for men with prostate cancer. Evidence has shown transurethral prostatic resection prior to brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy is associated with worsening genitourinary toxicity. However, there is no review of genitourinary toxicity when TURP occurs prior to definitive hypofractionated radiotherapy. In this review, we seek to illustrate the genitourinary outcomes for men with localized prostate cancer who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate prior to receiving definitive hypofractionated radiotherapy. Genitourinary outcomes are explored, and any predictive risk factors for increased genitourinary toxicity are described.

PubMed, Medline (Ovid), EMBASE and Cochrane Library were all searched for relevant articles published in English within the last 25 years. This scoping review identified a total of 579 articles. Following screening by authors, 11 articles were included for analysis.

Five studies reported on acute and late toxicity. One article reported only acute toxicity while 5 documented late toxicity only. While most articles found no increased risk of acute toxicity, the risk of late toxicity, particularly hematuria was noted to be significant. Risk factors including poor baseline urinary function, prostate volume, number of prior transurethral prostatic resections, timing of radiotherapy following transurethral prostatic resection, volume of the intraprostatic resection cavity and mean dose delivered to the cavity were all found to influence genitourinary outcomes.

For those who have undergone prior TURP hypofractionated radiotherapy may increase the risk of late urinary toxicity, particularly hematuria. Those with persisting bladder dysfunction following TURP are at greatest risk and careful management of these men is required. Close collaboration between urologists and radiation oncologists is recommended to discuss the management of patients with residual baseline bladder dysfunction prior to commencing hypofractionated radiotherapy.

Urologic oncology. 2024 Mar 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Thomas Neerhut, Richard Grills, Rod Lynch, Patrick Daniel Preece, Kathryn McLeod

Department of Urological Surgery, Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: ., Department of Urological Surgery, Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia., Department of Radiation Oncology, Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.