Complications of immuno-oncology care: what urologist should know.

To provide a practical review of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that may be encountered in uro-oncology patients.

We conducted a literature review of studies reporting irAEs including articles published through September 2023 for uro-oncology patients and the potential relevancy for the practicing urologist.

Immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer treatment, extending its impact to urological malignancies including for patients with urothelial, kidney, and prostate cancers. Immuno-oncology (IO) compounds have achieved measurable and durable responses in these cancers. Urologists, choosing to administer or co-manage IO patient care, should be prepared to understand, evaluate, and treat irAEs. This review discusses the spectrum of irAEs that can be encountered. Ongoing trials are exploring the use of immunotherapy at earlier stages of uro-oncological diseases, thus underscoring the evolving landscape of urological cancer treatment. Paradoxically, some data suggests that the occurrence of irAEs is associated with improved oncological outcomes.

Immune-related AEs, while manageable, may be life-threatening and require lifelong therapy. A thorough understanding of AEs and toxicity of a novel drug class is imperative.

BJU international. 2024 Mar 04 [Epub ahead of print]

Valentina Grajales, Alberto Martini, Neal D Shore

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA., Carolina Urologic Research Center, Myrtle Beach, SC, USA.