Long-Term Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Prostate Cancer Screening.

Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in men. The updated PSA testing 2018 United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines recommend shared decision-making for men ages 55 to 69. In 2010, the Affordable Care Act expanded Medicaid coverage to childless adults earning < 138% of the federal poverty level. Thereafter, individual states have chosen to adopt or defer Medicaid expansion at different times. This allows for the opportunity to study the effects of expansion on a population that did not previously qualify for Medicaid. We examine the long-term association of Medicaid expansion on prostate cancer screening.

Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were extracted for childless men earning less than 138% of the federal poverty level in states with different Medicaid expansion statuses from 2012 to 2020. States were classified into 4 expansion categories: very early expansion states, early expansion states, late expansion states, and nonexpansion states. Prevalence of PSA screening was determined for each category of expansion. Difference-in-differences analyses were used to understand variations in very early expansion states, early expansion states, and late expansion states trends with reference to nonexpansion states.

PSA screening prevalence decreased in very early expansion states (27.76% vs 18.50%), early expansion states (33.79% vs 18.09%), late expansion states (36.08% vs 19.14%), and nonexpansion states (38.82% vs 24.40%) from 2012 to 2020. However, the difference-in-differences analyses did not show statistically significant results among any of the years and expansion category groups in our study period.

PSA screening prevalence decreased in all states, regardless of expansion category. No long-term effect of Medicaid expansion on PSA screening prevalence was observed among states with different expansion statuses.

Urology practice. 2023 Nov 28 [Epub ahead of print]

Mayra I Lucas, Zhiyu Qian, Stuart R Lipsitz, Xi Chen, Khalid Alkhatib, Adam S Kibel, Alexander P Cole, Hari S Iyer, Quoc-Dien Trinh

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California., Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts., Section of Cancer Epidemiology and Health Outcomes, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey.