Racial differences in patient-reported outcomes among men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer.

Real-world data on racial differences in the side effects of radical prostatectomy on quality of life (QoL) are lacking. We aimed to evaluate differences in patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) among non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) men using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) questionnaire to measure health-related QoL after radical prostatectomy.

We retrospectively assessed prospectively collected PROMs using EPIC-CP scores at a tertiary care center between 2015 and 2021 for men with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. The primary endpoint was the overall QoL score for NHB and NHW men, with a total score of 60 and higher scores indicating worse QoL. An imputed mixed linear regression model was used to examine the effect of covariates on the change in overall QoL score following surgery. A pairwise comparison was used to estimate the mean QoL scores before surgery as well as up to 24 months after surgery.

Our cohort consisted of 2229 men who answered at least one EPIC-CP questionnaire before or after surgery, of which 110 (4.94%) were NHB and 2119 (95.07%) were NHW men. The QoL scores differed for NHB and NHW at baseline (2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-4.31, p = 0.02), 3 months (4.36, 95% CI 2.29-6.42, p < 0.01), 6 months (3.26, 95% CI 1.10-5.43, p < 0.01), and 12 months after surgery (2.48, 95% CI 0.19-4.77, p = 0.03) with NHB having worse scores. There was no difference in QoL between NHB and NHW men 24 months after surgery.

A significant difference in QoL between NHB and NHW men was reported before surgery, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, with NHB having worse QoL scores. However, there was no long-term difference in reported QoL. Our findings inform strategies that can be implemented to mitigate racial differences in short-term outcomes.

The Prostate. 2023 Sep 14 [Epub ahead of print]

Mara Koelker, Muhieddine Labban, Nicola Frego, Jamie Ye, Stuart R Lipsitz, Harrison Taylor Hubbell, Maria Edelen, Grant Steele, Kevin Salinas, Christian P Meyer, Jonathan Makanjuola, Caroline M Moore, Alexander P Cole, Adam S Kibel, Quoc-Dien Trinh

Division of Urological Surgery and Center of Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA., Mass General Brigham, Somerville, Massachusetts, USA., Brigham and Women's Hospital, PROVE Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA., Department of Urology, Herford, Germany., King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda., Division of Surgical and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK.