A single-institution prospective pilot clinical trial was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of combining [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of oligometastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Methods: Six patients with 9 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positive oligometastases received 2 cycles of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 RPT followed by SBRT. After the first intravenous infusion of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 (7.46 ± 0.15 GBq), patients underwent SPECT/CT at 3.2 ± 0.5, 23.9 ± 0.4, and 87.4 ± 12.0 h. Voxel-based dosimetry was performed with calibration factors (11.7 counts per second/MBq) and recovery coefficients derived from in-house phantom experiments. Lesions were segmented on baseline PSMA PET/CT (50% SUVmax). After a second cycle of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 (44 ± 3 d; 7.50 ± 0.10 GBq) and an interim PSMA PET/CT scan, SBRT (27 Gy in 3 fractions) was delivered to all PSMA-avid oligometastatic sites, followed by post-PSMA PET/CT. RPT and SBRT voxelwise dose maps were scaled (α/β = 3 Gy; repair half-time, 1.5 h) to calculate the biologically effective dose (BED). Results: All patients completed the combination therapy without complications. No grade 3+ toxicities were noted. The median of the lesion SUVmax as measured on PSMA PET was 16.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 11.6) (baseline), 6.2 (IQR, 2.7) (interim), and 2.9 (IQR, 1.4) (post). PET-derived lesion volumes were 0.4-1.7 cm3 The median lesion-absorbed dose (AD) from the first cycle of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 RPT (ADRPT) was 27.7 Gy (range, 8.3-58.2 Gy; corresponding to 3.7 Gy/GBq, range, 1.1-7.7 Gy/GBq), whereas the median lesion AD from SBRT was 28.1 Gy (range, 26.7-28.8 Gy). Spearman rank correlation, ρ, was 0.90 between the baseline lesion PET SUVmax and SPECT SUVmax (P = 0.005), 0.74 (P = 0.046) between the baseline PET SUVmax and the lesion ADRPT, and -0.81 (P = 0.022) between the lesion ADRPT and the percent change in PET SUVmax (baseline to interim). The median for the lesion BED from RPT and SBRT was 159 Gy (range, 124-219 Gy). ρ between the BED from RPT and SBRT and the percent change in PET SUVmax (baseline to post) was -0.88 (P = 0.007). Two cycles of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 RPT contributed approximately 40% to the maximum BED from RPT and SBRT. Conclusion: Lesional dosimetry in patients with oligometastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer undergoing [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 RPT followed by SBRT is feasible. Combined RPT and SBRT may provide an efficient method to maximize the delivery of meaningful doses to oligometastatic disease while addressing potential microscopic disease reservoirs and limiting the dose exposure to normal tissues.
Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2023 Aug 31 [Epub ahead of print]
Milan Grkovski, Joseph A O'Donoghue, Brandon S Imber, George Andl, Cheng Tu, Daniel Lafontaine, Jazmin Schwartz, Maria Thor, Michael J Zelefsky, John L Humm, Lisa Bodei
Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; ., Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York., Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York., Varian Medical Systems Inc., Palo Alto, California; and., Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York .