18F-DCFPyL PSMA-PET affects management of salvage radiotherapy for post-prostatectomy patients with biochemical failure: A matched cohort study.

Our objective was to assess the effect of 18F-DCFPyL prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) on the management and outcomes of patients receiving salvage radiotherapy following biochemical failure (BF) post-radical prostatectomy (RP) using a matched cohort analysis.

A PSMA-PET cohort of patients with BF post-RP was identified through a prospective registry. Patients from this registry were included if they did not have disease outside of the pelvis and underwent salvage radiotherapy to the prostate and/or pelvis. Case-control matching was performed with a contemporary cohort of patients with BF post-RP without PSMA-PET information.

Forty-four patients were included in the PSMA-PET cohort and 80 were analyzed in the non-PSMA-PET cohort. The PSMA-PET cohort had a significantly higher pre-radiotherapy median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 0.48 ng/mL compared to 0.20 ng/mL in the non-PSMA-PET cohort (p<0.001), but these levels were similar after matching. The PSMA-PET cohort had a higher proportion of patients receiving radiotherapy to pelvic lymph nodes (n=27 [61.4%] vs. n=16 [20.0%], p<0.001). Median followup was 26 months (interquartile range 18.8-33) for both cohorts. BF-free survival and event-free survival were not significantly different between the two cohorts for all (p=0.662 and >0.99) and matched patients (p=0.808 and 0.808), respectively. Metastasis-free survival was significantly higher in the matched PSMA-PET cohort compared to the matched non-PSMA-PET cohort (p=0.046), although a higher proportion of patients in the non-PSMA-PET cohort underwent PSMA-PET restaging after BF (52% vs. 20%, p=0.08726).

Our study showed that patients undergoing PSMA-PET scans after BF post-RP had a higher likelihood of pelvic nodal treatment at the time of salvage RT. Despite higher PSA levels at salvage, we identified no recurrence or survival differences.

Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada. 2023 Aug [Epub]

Andrew J Arifin, Stephanie Gulstene, Andrew Warner, Glenn S Bauman, Lucas C Mendez

Division of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON, Canada.