Prostate cancer has a wide spectrum ranging between low-grade localized disease and castrate-resistant metastatic disease. Although whole gland and systematic therapies result in cure in the majority of patients, recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer can still occur. Imaging approaches including anatomic, functional, and molecular modalities are continuously expanding. Currently, recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer is grouped in three major categories: 1) Clinical concern for residual or recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy, 2) Clinical concern for residual or recurrent disease after nonsurgical local and pelvic treatments, and 3) Metastatic prostate cancer treated by systemic therapy (androgen deprivation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy). This document is a review of the current literature regarding imaging in these settings and the resulting recommendations for imaging. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR. 2023 May [Epub]
Expert Panel on Urologic Imaging , Baris Turkbey, Aytekin Oto, Brian C Allen, Oguz Akin, Lauren F Alexander, Mim Ari, Adam T Froemming, Pat F Fulgham, Lori Mankowski Gettle, Jodi K Maranchie, Seth A Rosenthal, Nicola Schieda, David M Schuster, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Mark E Lockhart
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address: ., Panel Chair, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois., Panel Vice-Chair, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York., Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida., The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, Primary care physician., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota., Urology Clinics of North Texas, Dallas, Texas; American Urological Association., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin., UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; American Urological Association., Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California; Commission on Radiation Oncology., Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and the Department of Radiology, The University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada., Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Commission on Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging., The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas., Specialty Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.