While active surveillance is the preferred management for most men with low-risk prostate cancer, a subset may harbor more aggressive disease. In this review we examine the evidence underlying an accurate and nuanced assessment of oncologic risk in these men.
We performed a non-systematic literature review current to January 2023 on PubMed for articles relating to clinical, pathologic, molecular and imaging-based modalities available for risk assessment in men with low-risk prostate cancer. Relevant articles were reviewed by the authors and evidence was summarized.
Many tools are available to personalize clinical decision making for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Total volume of cancer, PSA density, and presence of ductal components have been consistently and strongly associated with current or future evidence of higher-grade disease. PSA kinetics, PIRADS 4/5 lesions on MRI, perineural invasion, germline mutations and genomic classifiers all appear to be associated with an increased risk, although are not as extensively validated. Race, percent free PSA, and other serum biomarkers such as Prostate Health Index and 4Kscore do not appear to be associated with long-term elevated risk.
Long-term prognosis for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer is excellent. There are many factors which should be routinely integrated into the initial management decision as well as determining intensity and frequency of active surveillance. Development of comprehensive multivariable instruments to guide clinical decisions is encouraged.
The Journal of urology. 2023 Apr 12 [Epub ahead of print]
M D Ho, A E Ross, S E Eggener
Section of Urology, University of Chicago., Department of Urology, Northwestern University.