Twelve-Month Follow-up of the Immune Response After COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients with Genitourinary Cancers: A Prospective Cohort Analysis.

Vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have had a transformative impact on morbidity and mortality. However, the long-term impact of vaccination on patients with genitourinary cancers is currently unknown.

This study aimed to assess seroconversion rates in patients with genitourinary cancers receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Patients with prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, or urothelial cancer who had not been vaccinated for COVID-19 were included. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 2, 6, and 12 months of one dose of an FDA-approved COVID-19 vaccine. Antibody titer analysis was performed using the SCoV-2 Detect IgG ELISA assay, and the results were reported as immune status ratio (ISR). A paired t-test was used for comparison of ISR values between timepoints. In addition, T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing was performed to assess for differences in TCR repertoire 2 months after vaccination.

Out of 133 patients enrolled, 98 baseline blood samples were collected. At 2-, 6-, and 12-month time points 98, 70, and 50 samples were collected, respectively. Median age was 67 (IQR, 62-75), with the majority of patients diagnosed with prostate (55.1%) or renal cell carcinoma (41.8%). Compared to baseline (0.24 [95% CI, 0.19-0.31]) a significant increase in the geometric mean ISR values was observed at the 2-month timepoint (5.59 [4.76-6.55]) (P < .001). However, at the 6-month timepoint, a significant decrease in the ISR values was observed (4.66 [95% CI, 4.04-5.38]; P < .0001). Notably, at the 12-month timepoint, the addition of a booster dose resulted in an absolute increase in the ISR values compared to those who did not receive a booster dose (P = .04).

Only a minority of patients with genitourinary cancers did not ultimately achieve satisfactory seroconversion after receiving commercial COVID-19 vaccination. Cancer type or treatment rendered did not appear to affect the immune response mounted after vaccination.

The oncologist. 2023 Mar 27 [Epub ahead of print]

Luis Meza, Zeynep Zengin, Sabrina Salgia, Jasnoor Malhotra, Ewa Karczewska, Tanya Dorff, Abhishek Tripathi, Jennifer Ely, Erin Kelley, Heather Mead, Jo Ann Hsu, Nazli Dizman, Nicholas Salgia, Neal Chawla, Alex Chehrazi-Raffle, Ramya Muddasani, Ameish Govindarajan, Adam Rock, Sandy Liu, Ravi Salgia, Jeffrey Trent, John Altin, Sumanta K Pal

Department of Medical Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA., Department of Immuno-Oncology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA., Pathogen and Microbiome Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute North, Flagstaff, AZ, USA., Integrated Cancer Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.