A comprehensive comparison between mpMRI of the prostate, MR-US fusion biopsy and whole mount histopathology.

To compare multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) findings, US-MR fusion prostate biopsy results and whole-mount thin-section histopathology after radical prostatectomy.

Overall 259 patients, who had undergone mpMRI with lesions reported as PI-RADS 3-5, underwent a MR-US fusion biopsy between 2018 and 2020.  Overall 186 biopsies yielded prostate cancer and 104 patients subsequently underwent endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy. Histopathology of biopsies was compared to the final histopathology in whole mount thin sections after radical prostatectomy by means of descriptive statistics, and further, the lesions from mpMRT were compared to whole mount histology.

Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 186 (71.8%) of 259 patients (median age 69.2 y, range 42-82 y, median PSA 7.8 ng/ml, range 2.1-31.3 ng/ml). Of those, 95 (51,1%) underwent radical endoscopic prostatectomy, and 80 (43%) chose radiotherapy or active surveillance. In 52/95 (54,7%) with RPE additional lesions were found in the final histological whole mount sections not described at mpMRI. 22/95 (23,2%) of RPE patients had ≥ 1 additional Gleason score ≥ 7 lesions, 23 /259 (8,4%) of biopsies, respectively. The Gleason score after surgery was upgraded in 37/95 (38,9%) and downgraded in 18/95 (18,9%) patients.

If we compare all 259 performed biopsies with the final histological whole mount sections which showed additional lesions with Gleason ≥ 7 (23,2%), it can be assumed that up to 10% of clinical significant carcinomas are missed during primary assessment via mpMRI. The majority of additional findings after RP were intermediate/high risk tumors. Upgrades from low-risk to intermediate or high-risk occurred.

World journal of urology. 2023 Feb 25 [Epub ahead of print]

Stephan Doblhammer, Paul Kinger, Maria Starmuehler, Christian Muschitz, Wolfgang Schima, Martin Susani, Andreas Baierl, Clemens Broessner

Department of Urology, Barmherzige Schwestern Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria. ., Department of Urology, Barmherzige Schwestern Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria., Medical Department II, Barmherzige Schwestern Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria., Department of Radiology, Barmherzige Schwestern Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria., Clinical Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Department of Statistics and Operations Research, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.