Using a Further Planning MRI after Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Significantly Reduces the Radiation Exposure of Organs at Risk in External Beam Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer.

Radiotherapy for prostate cancer is often preceded by neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which leads to a reduction in the size of the prostate. This study examines whether it is relevant for treatment planning to acquire a second planning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ADT (=MRI 2) or whether it can be planned without disadvantage based on an MRI acquired before starting ADT (=MRI 1). The imaging data for the radiotherapy treatment planning of 17 patients with prostate cancer who received two planning MRIs (before and after neoadjuvant ADT) were analyzed as follows: detailed comparable radiation plans were created separately, each based on the planning CT scan and either MRI 1 or MRI 2. After ADT for an average of 17.2 weeks, the prostate was reduced in size by an average of 24%. By using MRI 2 for treatment planning, the V60Gy of the rectum could be significantly relieved by an average of 15% with the same coverage of the target volume, and the V70Gy by as much as 33% (compared to using MRI 1 alone). Using a second MRI for treatment planning after neoadjuvant ADT in prostate cancer leads to a significant relief for the organs at risk, especially in the high dose range, with the same irradiation of the target volume, and should therefore be carried out regularly. Waiting for the prostate to shrink after a few months of ADT contributes to relief for the organs at risk and to lowering the toxicity. However, the use of reduced target volumes requires an image-guided application, and the oncological outcome needs to be verified in further studies.

Journal of clinical medicine. 2023 Jan 10*** epublish ***

Roland Merten, Mirko Fischer, Hans Christiansen, Susanne Hellms, Christoph Alexander Joachim von Klot, Nele Henrike Thomas, Anne Caroline Knöchelmann

Clinic for Radiotherapy, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany., Institute for Radiology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany., Clinic for Urology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany., Institute for Biostatistics, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.