Prostate-specific Antigen Kinetics During Androgen-deprivation Therapy Predict Response to Enzalutamide in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

No practical predictive biomarkers exist to date for the response to androgen receptor-axis targeted (ARAT) therapies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study investigated whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in primary androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer may be associated with the response to ARAT agents in mCRPC.

This study assessed 102 patients with mCRPC treated with enzalutamide or abiraterone to evaluate the associations between clinical outcomes and PSA kinetics, including the ratio of initial to nadir PSA (I/N PSA) level in primary combined androgen blockade. The PSA response was defined as a ≥50% decrease at 3 months from baseline in patients with mCRPC.

In patients treated with enzalutamide, the optimal cut-off I/N PSA value for PSA response was 531 ng/ml (sensitivity=66.7%, specificity=88.2%, area under the curve=0.73, using a receiver operating characteristic curve). The PSA response was 83.3% and 25.0% in the high and low I/N PSA groups, respectively. The median overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival from enzalutamide initiation were longer for the high compared to the low I/N PSA group. Multivariate analysis revealed I/N PSA (hazard ratio=0.275, p=0.026) as an independent risk factor for overall survival in the patients treated with enzalutamide. In contrast, I/N PSA showed no predictive ability for PSA response in patients treated with abiraterone.

In patients with mCRPC, I/N PSA can be a practical predictive biomarker for response to the ARAT agent enzalutamide.

Anticancer research. 2023 Jan [Epub]

Yujiro Nagata, Takuo Matsukawa, Ikko Tomisaki, Naohiro Fujimoto

Department of Urology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan ., Department of Urology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.