A Phase 1 Trial of Highly Conformal, Hypofractionated Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy.

This phase 1 trial aimed to identify the maximally tolerated hypofractionated dose schedule for postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) after radical prostatectomy. Secondary objectives included biochemical control and quality of life (QoL) measures.

Patients were treated on 1 of 3 dose levels (DLs): 56.4 Gy in 20 fractions (DL1), 51.2 Gy in 15 fractions (DL2), and 44.2 Gy in 10 fractions (DL3). Treatment was delivered to the prostate bed without pelvic nodal irradiation. Dose escalation followed a standard 3 + 3 design with an expansion for 6 additional patients at the maximally tolerated hypofractionated dose schedule. Acute dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as grade 3 toxicity lasting >4 days within 21 days of PORT completion; late DLT was defined as grade 4 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity.

Between January 2018 and August 2019, 15 patients underwent radiation treatment: 3 on DL1, 3 on DL2, and 9 on DL3. The median follow-up was 24 months. There were no DLTs, and the maximally tolerated hypofractionated dose schedule was identified as DL3. Two of the 15 patients (13.3%) experienced biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen >0.1). Ten of 15 patients (67%) had grade 2+ acute toxicities, consisting of transient GI toxicities. Three patients experienced late grade 2+ GI toxicity, and 5 patients experienced late grade 2+ GU toxicity. Late grade 3 GU toxicity occurred in 2 patients. There were no grade 4+ acute or late toxicities. There were no significant differences in GI measures of QoL, however, there was an increase in GU symptoms and corresponding decrease in GU QoL between 12 and 24 months.

The maximum tolerated hypofractionated dose schedule for hypofractionated PORT to the prostate bed was determined to be 44.2 Gy in 10 daily fractions. The most frequent clinically significant toxicities were late grade 2+ GU toxicities, which corresponded to a worsening of late GU QoL.

Advances in radiation oncology. 2022 Jul 15*** epublish ***

Krishnan R Patel, Lindsay S Rowe, Erica Schott, Theresa Cooley-Zgela, Holly Ning, Baris Turkbey, Peter Choyke, Liza Lindenberg, Esther Mena, Peter A Pinto, Qihu Zhang, Joanna Shih, Kilian E Salerno, Deborah E Citrin

Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland., Molecular Imaging Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland., Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland., Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis: Biometric Research Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

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